How to File Taxes If You’re Senior

(July 2024)

How to File Taxes If You’re Senior

In This Article

Are you 65 or older? Facing unique challenges like health concerns, retirement planning, and potential social isolation? If yes, you are typically a senior. Different organizations and contexts may have varying definitions of a senior; for instance, a store might extend senior discounts to anyone who is 55 and above, while certain government programs may require individuals to be 65 or older to qualify.

As a senior, you enjoy various benefits, such as discounts, pensions, and free tax assistance. Exploring these aspects can be different for each person, and understanding the specific criteria for different programs is essential.

So, whether it’s planning for retirement or taking advantage of discounts, seniors often encounter a range of opportunities and considerations unique to that age group.

To file taxes if you’re senior:

  1. Understand Your Filing Status
  2. Know Standard Deductions for Seniors
  3. Consider Itemized Deductions
  4. Comprehend Taxable Amount of Social Security Benefits
  5. Explore Credit for the Elderly or Disabled
  6. Opt for Free IRS Tax Return Preparation


1. Understand Your Filing Status

Understand Your Filing Status

Even if you file your taxes as a senior in society, you need to identify under any of the major filing statuses as a taxpayer.

If you’re not married, divorced, or legally separated and don’t qualify for another status, you are Single.

If you’re married and agree to file your taxes together, choose Married Filing Jointly. If your spouse passes away during the year and you don’t remarry, this still applies.

Opt for Married Filing Separately if you’re married but prefer filing your taxes separately. Keep in mind that it might result in higher taxes but can be useful in specific situations.

Head of Household is for you if you are unmarried, paying more than half the cost of a home, and having a qualifying person (like a child, parent, or relative) living with you for more than half the year. This often results in lower taxes.

If you’re a widow, don’t remarry, have a dependent child, and meet other specific requirements, you qualify for Qualifying Widow(er) with Dependent Child. This allows you to use the same tax rates and standard deduction as if you are married, even for two years after your spouse’s death.

2. Know Standard Deductions for Seniors

The standard deduction is the portion of your income you subtract before calculating taxes, reducing what you owe. It varies by filing status, age, and blindness. The IRS adjusts these figures annually based on inflation. Check Form 1040 instructions for details on calculating your standard deduction.

The standard deduction amounts for 2023 vary based on your filing status:

  • Single: $13,850
  • Married Filing Jointly: $27,700
  • Married Filing Separately: $13,850
  • Head of Household: $20,800

If you’re 65 or older or blind, you get an extra amount to add:

  • Single: $1,850 ($3,700, if 65 or older and blind)
  • Married Filing Jointly: $1,500 each, i.e., $3,000 if both spouses are 65 or older
  • Married Filing Separately: $1,500 ($3,000, if 65 or older and blind)
  • Head of Household: $1,850 ($3,700, if 65 or older and blind)

For instance, if you’re single and 65 or older, your deduction is $15,700 ($13,850 + $1,850). If you’re married filing jointly and both are 65 or older, it’s $30,700 ($27,700 + $1,500 + $1,500). Head of Household, 65 or older and blind? Your deduction is $24,500 ($20,800 + $3,700). Check the Form 1040 instructions for more details.

3. Consider Itemized Deductions

Consider Itemized Deductions

When it comes to reducing your taxable income, you have two options: the standard deduction or itemized deductions, but you can’t choose both. The standard deduction is a fixed amount based on your filing status, age, and blindness.

On the other hand, itemized deductions include expenses like mortgage interest, property taxes, medical costs, and charitable contributions. To decide, compare your standard deduction with your itemized deductions.

If itemized is higher, you pay less tax that way; if not, go for the standard deduction. Use the Form 1040 instructions or the IRS website’s Interactive Tax Assistant for guidance.

Example: If your standard deduction is $15,700, but your itemized deductions are $16,000, go for an itemized deduction to save more on taxes. If itemized items are only $12,000, stick with the standard deduction, because it’s higher.

4. Comprehend Taxable Amount of Social Security Benefits

Social Security benefits are monthly payments from the Social Security Administration for retirees, disabled individuals, and survivors. Types include retirement, disability, survivor, and Supplemental Security Income (SSI). The SSA issues Form SSA-1099 annually, detailing the benefits you receive. Report this on Form 1040-SR with your tax return.

Not all benefits are taxable; it depends on your total income and filing status.

If you are single and your income is $25,000 or less, none is taxable; between $25,000 and $34,000, up to 50% is taxable; over $34,000, up to 85% is taxable.

If you are married filing jointly, the thresholds are $32,000 and $44,000–less than $32,000 is not taxable; above $32,000 but below $44,000 is 50% taxable, while above $44,000 in income is 85% taxable. If married filing separately and living with a spouse, up to 85% is taxable.

Report taxable benefits on Form 1040. Use the IRS Social Security benefits worksheet or Interactive Tax Assistant for calculations. Check the SSA website for more details.

How to Calculate Taxable Amounts

To calculate taxable amounts, you need to:

  • Find your total income: AGI + nontaxable interest + half of Social Security benefits.
  • Check the income thresholds for your filing status.
  • Use examples to understand how it works.


  • Single, 65 or older, $18,000 total income: You have no taxable benefits.
  • Married filing jointly, both 65 or older, $66,500 total income: You pay up to 50% tax on your social benefits. Also, follow the IRS worksheet for precise taxable amounts.
  • Head of household, 65 or older and blind, $49,000 total income: You pay up to 85% tax. Use the IRS worksheet to calculate taxable benefits.

Check out the Social Security Benefits Worksheet in the Form 1040 and Form 1040-SR instructions. It helps you figure out the taxable part of your social security benefits. If you don’t have income from outside the U.S., this worksheet is for you.

Otherwise, use Publication 915 for details on federal tax rules for social security and equivalent tier 1 railroad retirement benefits. It covers how to calculate taxable benefits, report the benefits on your tax return, and handle special situations like lump-sum payments or benefits for dependents and survivors. It’s your go-to guide for understanding and managing your social security taxes.

5. Explore Credit for the Elderly or Disabled

The elderly or disabled tax credit is a way to reduce your tax bill, providing relief for individuals ages 65 and older or anyone permanently disabled. To qualify, you must be a U.S. citizen, not claim as a dependent, and file a joint return if you are married. Your income comes from sources other than Social Security benefits. Either being 65 or older or meeting the disability criteria is a must.

Income limits apply based on your filing status. If your income falls within the limits of $12,500 and $25,000, you can use Schedule R to calculate the credit. The credit ranges from $3,750 to $7,500, depending on your filing status and whether you meet specific criteria. Report the credit amount on Form 1040-SR.

Every year, the IRS adjusts the income limits and credit amounts for the Elderly or Disabled Tax Credit using the Chained Consumer Price Index.

Here are the key details:

  • Single, Head of Household, or Qualifying Widow(er):
    • AGI Limit: $17,500
    • Credit Amount: $3,750 if 65 or older, $5,000 if disabled, $7,500 if both
  • Married Filing Jointly (One Spouse Qualifies):
    • AGI Limit: $20,000
    • Credit Amount: Same as above
  • Married Filing Jointly (Both Spouses Qualify):
    • AGI Limit: $25,000
    • Credit Amount: Varies based on age and disability, up to $15,000
  • Married Filing Separately (Lived Apart Entire Year):
    • AGI Limit: $12,500
    • Credit Amount: Varies based on age and disability, up to $7,500

You calculate the credit when you determine if your total income falls within the income limits for your filing status. If you are eligible, you start with a base amount and may have reductions based on income exceeding AGI limits.

For example:

  • If you’re single and 65 or older with an AGI of $15,000, your credit is $3,750.
  • If you’re married filing jointly, both 65 or older, and your total income exceeds the limit, your credit reduces.

Remember, the figures usually change annually due to inflation, and you can check the amounts the IRS publishes each year.

Keep an eye on your income and filing status to see if you qualify for this tax credit.

For more details and worksheets, refer to Schedule R and Publication 524 or 554. If your income exceeds the limits, unfortunately, you’re not eligible for the credit.

Form 1040-SR, Schedule R helps you claim the Elderly or Disabled Credit. It has three parts: Part I checks if you’re eligible, Part II certifies permanent disability, and Part III calculates your credit. Attach it to your tax return.

Publication 524 is a guide explaining rules for the Elderly or Disabled Credit. It gives details on eligibility, calculating the credit, and reporting it on your tax return. It covers special situations like lump-sum payments and benefits for dependents or survivors.

Publication 554, Tax Guide for Seniors, is an overview of tax topics for older taxpayers. It covers filing requirements, deductions, credits, retirement plans, and more. It also includes information on free tax return preparation and counseling for seniors.

6. Opt for Free IRS Tax Return Preparation

Opt for Free IRS Tax Return Preparation

File your taxes for free! If you’re a senior or have a moderate income, some eligible volunteers are ready to help you. Check out IRS-sponsored programs like VITA (Volunteer Income Tax Assistance) for individuals with incomes under $60,000, disabilities, and who speak limited English speakers.

You can also make use of TCE (Tax Counseling for the Elderly) if you are age 60+, TCE volunteers are experts in responding to retirement-related questions. Find a nearby location at or call 800-906-9887. Don’t forget to bring essential documents like ID, Social Security cards, income statements, and more. Get the details at It’s easy, it’s free, and it’s all about helping you!

Need help with your taxes? You can find free assistance through the IRS VITA/TCE program. Use the locator tool on the IRS website or call 800-906-9887.

Download the IRS2Go app for a tax prep provider near you. Bring your ID, Social Security cards, income statements, health insurance information, bank details, and last year’s tax return. Check the IRS website for the complete list.

You can also get free tax help from AARP Tax-Aide for seniors and low-income individuals. It’s for individuals of 60 years and older, focusing on pension and retirement questions. Visit AARP’s website or call 888-227-7669 to find a Tax-Aide site near you.


To file taxes as a senior, first understand your tax-free income amount, which is the standard deduction, based on factors like age and filing status. You can choose between standard and itemized deductions; check Form 1040-SR instructions for details.

Next, learn how to calculate the taxable part of your Social Security benefits, depending on your total income and filing status. Take note of the thresholds and formulas. You can use worksheets in Form 1040-SR instructions or refer to Publication 915 for more examples.

Claiming the Credit for the Elderly or Disabled can reduce your tax liability. Learn how this nonrefundable tax credit hinges on your age, income, and disability status. Note that Schedule R (Form 1040 or 1040-SR) or Publications 524 and 554 offer guidance for calculating and reporting the credit.

If you need free tax return help, explore IRS programs like VITA, TCE, or AARP Tax-Aide. Locate the nearest assistance site through the IRS website, the IRS2Go app, or the AARP website. Make sure to bring the necessary documents for a smooth process.

Filing taxes correctly and on time is crucial to avoiding penalties and planning for your financial future. It also means getting refunds or credits you have a right to.

If you have questions, consider seeking advice from a tax professional or using free resources like the IRS website, the IRS2Go app, and the AARP website.

This post is to be used for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal, business, or tax advice. Each person should consult his or her own attorney, business advisor, or tax advisor with respect to matters referenced in this post. . For comprehensive tax, legal or financial advice, always contact a qualified professional in your area. S’witty Kiwi assumes no liability for actions taken in reliance upon the information contained herein.

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